Stage 3.1  : D-A-E-T-E-I-M

Seven Reasons to Acquire Resources

Resource acquisition is appropriate at any point in the change process when the change agent and his/her clients find that they need additional facts, ideas, materials, or equip­ment to help them make a decision or understand their situation more fully. These general purposes for resource acquisition are summed up in seven concepts: Diagnosis; Awareness; Evaluation-Before-Trial; Trial; Evaluation-After­ Trial; Installation; and Maintenance.


Examining the cares, needs, problems, and circumstances of the client

There are resources to help us understand the client system, its needs and problems. Most systems keep records. All members keep mental records. Some members are observers. All these sources of information need to be surfaced and sifted to get a clear picture of what is going on.


Scan the horizon for the widest possible range of alternative possibilities for change

  • What has been tried elsewhere having some similarity to what we are thinking of here?
  • What are the new technologies that might have some relevance?
  • What are some ideas that have been talked about in the literature or floated in the media?

A broad awareness of what is "new" provides images of solutions.
It liberates our vision.
It breaks us out of traditional molds.

For Evaluation-before-trial

There is information which allows us to judge and compare alternative solutions; information about "validity," "reliability," and "effectiveness" of the innovation as demonstrated in other settings. What really works and what is the proof that it works?

For Trial

Some resources allow us to demonstrate the innovation in our own setting. Information that explains in detail how to try out an innovation on an experimental basis can be very helpful. Usually the best source for such information is someone who has actually tried it. Those who have succeeded and those who have failed can be equally helpful. A visit to a site where something like the innovation you are planning is already in practice is ideal.   

For Evaluation-after-trial

There is information which helps us to evaluate the success of the trial and helps us determine if the innovation solves our problems and meets our needs. Such information must be generated within the client system itself. It cannot be acquired from outside sources.

For Installation

There are resources which provide detailed information on start-up costs and requirements for new staff, training, and readjustments so that we can plan for system-wide adoption of an innovation.

For Maintenance

Serious continued adoption of an innovation requires information on long-term costs and problems of upkeep. What do we need to know to evaluate and to assist in maintaining the innovation on a continuing basis after successful installation?

The DAETEIM formula corresponds roughly to the process of planned change as it is experienced by the client system. However, two points should be kept in mind in reviewing this list. First, because different client systems experience the change process differently, the sequence in which information is acquired rarely follows the order in which we have presented these purposes. For example, the clients' "awareness" of change possibilities may precede their "diagnosis" of a need for change in their system. Second, it is likely that resources relevant to several purposes will often be acquired simultaneously. The following examples illustrate how certain resources can serve these DAETEIM purposes:


Example A

If the change agent and the clients want to learn more about how their system operates and what the sources of some of their problems may be (Diagnosis), they may find help in books and articles on organization development (sometimes referred to in professional circles as "00"). Such information will provide them with a general understanding (Awareness) of the nature of systems and of human interaction and will familiarize them with concepts such as "role," "influence," "communication networks," etc. If they wish to explore the operation of their own system further, they might get information on procedures and instruments for diagnosis from other people's research. They might even call in a specialist in diagnosis.

Example B

Quite different resources might be tapped by members of a system whose purpose in resource acquisition is to install an innovation which they have tried, evaluated, and decided to adopt. These change agents need facts and figures on installation costs, necessary space, training, etc. They also may want to show all members of their system how effective the pilot model has been, and so they may choose to find out how to conduct a successful demonstration. They will want to involve their own people who participated in the pilot project in the demonstration and training aspects of the installation. They may also call on outsiders who have had experience with the innovation to get advice on time, cost, and special requirements of installation. Websites or other promotional material from developers or manufacturers may also be very useful at this stage.